Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm.
Primary thallus formed of small greenish-gray squamules, usually not very persistent. Podetia 2-6 cm high, gray-yellowish becoming ochre-orange at the base by necrosis, terminated by a slender relatively regular scyphus with a cup 5-8 mm in diameter with more or less toothed edges; the podetia are sometimes fissured or with depressions, very finely sorediate except at the base which is more or less scaly or corticate. Globular apothecia 2-4 mm in diameter, bright red, rare. Pycnidia usually numerous, ovoid, red, at the margin of the scyphus. C-, K-, KC +/- pale yellow, P-. Species with continental tendencies coming on soils rich in humus, more rarely on rotten wood. N.B. Herbarium samples are covered with a layer of yellowish zeorin. Cladonia pleurota is very similar but has granular soredia; Cladonia sulphurina is also very similar (and sometimes synonymized) but has very distorted scyphus and is said to be more mountainous and northern.