Français English



(Non exhaustive list).

     Netherlands site with numerous descriptions and photographs of lichens of maritime affinity.

     Overall website based on Ireland lichens inventory. For each species a description, a description map are available and possibly, a photograph .

    Comprehensive site of Great Britain, but not detailed.

    Numerous illustrated files (including  description text) of Great-Britain lichens . Alphabetic order.

    Remarkable site with photos and texts. Lichens are presented according to their habitats or their morphology.

     Site with texts, distribution maps and photos.

   University site. A reference for northern Europe lichens and more generally European lichens.

   A photos website by a couple of naturalists.  Include mainly northern Europe lichens but also numerous maritime species.

    Naturalist website partly dedicated to lichens.

     An illustrated atlas of lichens of Belgium, Luxembourg and North of France. Some coastal species.

    Report of a joint field expedition of German and British lichenologists to Jersey. Many coastal species are photographed in their habitat, but unfortunately presented in a small format.

      Beautiful photographs of termophilic species.

     Beautiful photographs of lichens of Cornwall and the South-West of England. Very similar habitats to those found in Brittany, Finistère.

     French Lichenology Association website. Numerous technical files with photos but maritime and oceanic species are not especially considered.

     Site with numerous oceanic and Macaronesian species. 

Lichens of Western North America. Some ubiquitous species.

Dryades, Identification keys for European species with illustrations (some taken from this site).



    A very complete and very practical identification key is available online:

NIMIS PL.  ITALIC 7.0 à l'adresse suivante:


      The classical Flora usually address very partially the maritime lichens and only the very common species are described. Therefore, comprehensive lichens Flora are required to seriously investigate the lichens of the coastal regions. Unfortunately there is no recent book in French and we suggest two English books that deal with all lichens. A German and two French books are also useful to consider if you want to complete your collection.

LICHENS An Illustrated Guide to the British and Irish Species. Frank S. Dobson. The Richmond Publishing Co. LTD. 5th edition 2005. Out of print. This book is very practical and well illustrated. The maritime lichens are well addressed since the author is a well-known specialist in this field. Useful during field expeditions  and accessible to beginners.

LICHENS An Illustrated Guide to the Bristish and Irish Species. Franck S. Dobson. The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd. 6th edition 2011. Complete and revise the previous edition. Unfortunately, photos are reduced to thumbnails and sometimes of poor quality.

The Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland C.W. Smith, A. Aptroot, B. J. Coppins, A. Fletcher, O. L. Gilbert, P. W. James & P. A. Wolseley. British Lichen Society. 2009. Reference work, but heavy book without photos and inappropriate for field expeditions. For confirmed lichenologists.

A new edition is available online on the British Lichen Society website: 

Die Flechten Baden-Würtembergs. V. Wirth. Teil 1 & 2. 1995.

Guide des lichens de France. Lichens des arbres. C. Van Haluwyn, J. Asta, J. P. Gavériaux. 2009.

Guide des lichens de France. Lichens des sols. C. Van Haluwyn, J. Asta, J.C. Boissière, P. Clerc, J.P. Gavériaux. 2012.

Les lichens. Etude biologique et Flore illustrée. P. OZENDA, G. CLAUZADE. Masson. 1970. 816 pages.



Right clic  "Download document"  PDF format. 

des ABBAYES H. 1931 Observations sur les lichens marins et maritimes du Massif Armoricain (Note préliminaire). Bull. Soc. Sc. Bretagne. VIII, fasc. 3-4, p 46-54. Télécharger

des ABBAYES H. 1933-1934. La végétation lichénique du Massif Armoricain. Etude chorologique et écologique. Bull. Soc. Sc. Nat. Ouest France. 5 ème série. III. Nantes. 267 p. For consult : Permalink :

APTROOT A, JORDAENS D., SPARRIUS L., SPIER L., van den BROECK. 2007. Korstmossen in Finistère (Bretagne). Buxbaumiella, 78, p. 52-64.

BOULY DE LESDAIN M. 1910 . Recherche sur les lichens des environs de Dunkerque Télécharger

COPPINS B. J. 1971. Field meeting in Brittany. Lichenologist, 5: 149-174.

CROUAN P. L. , CROUAN H. M. 1867. Florule du Finistère. 262 p. 32 pl. Paris F. KLINCKSIECK Edit. Télécharger

MASSE L. J. C. 1966. Flore et végétation lichéniques des Iles Glénan (Finistère).  Revue bryologique et lichénologique. Tome XXXIV, Fasc. 3-4, p. 854-926.

MAGAIN N., SERUSIAUX E. Mycol Progress (2015) 14:97. Dismantling the treasured flagship lichen Sticta fuliginosa (Peltigerales) into four species in Western Europe. Téléchargeable à :

MASSON Didier. 2005. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 26 (3): 205-265. Taxinomie, écologie et chorologie des espèces françaises des genres Hypotrachyna et Parmelinopsis (Ascomycota lichénénisés, Parmeliaceae).

OLIVIER H. 1870. Exposé systématique et description des lichens de l'ouest et nord-ouest de la France (Normandie, Bretagne, Anjou, Maine, Vendée) Tome 1 : Télécharger Tome 2 : Télécharger

ORANGE A. 2008. British Pyrenocarpous Lichens. Téléchargeable à :

ORANGE A. 2013. British and Other Pyrenocarpus Lichens.

OZENDA P. & CLAUZADE G. 1970 Les lichens, étude biologique et flore illustrée :

PIQUENARD C. A. 1904. Lichens du Finistère. Bull. Acad. Internat. Géogr. Bot. Le Mans. 72 p. Télécharger

SCHUMM F. 2008. Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren.:


Content : Alain Gérault - Website development : Sylvain Ard - Hosting :